BOC 1011

Credits: .7
Lecture: 6 hrs
Group Exercises: 1 hr
Total: 7 hrs

Prerequisites: None

Class Description: Participants will learn the theory, design, and operational practices for displacement ventilation strategies, under-floor air distribution systems, and naturally ventilated and mixed mode strategies in buildings to improve thermal comfort, reduce system energy use, and maintain an effective and high-performing ventilation system. Participants will learn the theory, design and operational practices for energy recovery from air and water source systems to determine applicable methods for capturing heating and cooling energy before it is vented or wasted in their building.


Learning Objectives:
At the completion of Energy Efficient Ventilation Strategies and Energy Savings through Energy Recovery a participant will be able to:

  1. Contrast the key operating characteristics that distinguish between Under-Floor Air Distribution UFAD, Displacement Ventilation (DV), Natural Ventilation, and mixed-mode-systems.
  2. Recognize the most common system components, design configurations, applications, and principles of operation found in the U.S.
  3. Discuss the relative benefits and challenges of each system.
  4. Explain how room air stratification affects performance, what recommended levels are, and how adjustments can be made.
  5. Describe the fundamentals of thermal decay.
  6. Recall troubleshooting techniques and strategies for addressing energy and indoor environmental quality issues.
  7. Explain the thermal comfort standards and how they compare to conventional standards.
  8. Identify ways to improve thermal comfort, reduce system energy use, and maintain an effective and high-performing HVAC system.
  9. Recall key research results that help to understand how occupants interact with and respond to the indoor environments.
  10. Identify the range of control strategies that people have used to optimize each system type.
  11. Recall case studies in various climates that can be used as precedents for the design and operation of similar buildings.
  12. Describe how and where energy is wasted in a typical building.
  13. Explain the theory of energy recovery from air and water source systems.
  14. List the types of air and water source energy recovery systems.
  15. Implement operational practices for energy recovery from air and water source systems.
  16. Describe the design considerations related to air and water source energy recovery systems.
  17. Describe typical utility incentives and tax credits that apply to implementing energy recovery strategies.
  18. Explain why capturing heating and cooling energy before it is vented or wasted is a cost-effective strategy.
  19. Describe how energy recovery techniques can assist building owners in meeting energy management goals.
  20. Demonstrate the cost effectiveness of energy recovery techniques using energy accounting principles.
  21. Describe how energy recovery strategies can help building owners comply with local and state energy efficiency requirements.
  22. Describe industry awards and certifications (e.g., LEED) that apply to energy recovery strategies.

BOC 1011 –Energy Efficient Ventilation Strategies and Energy Savings through Energy Recovery Handbook, NEEC

Recommended Readings:
Architectural Energy Corporation. 2006. “Displacement Ventilation Design Guide: K-12 Schools.” Contract No. 500-03-003, California Energy Commission (CEC),

Energy Design Resources. 2003. “Design Brief: Underfloor Air Distribution and Access Floors.” Prepared for EDR by Architectural Energy Corporation.

Mixed-Mode Case Studies, CBE website, CBE mixed mode website,

Energy Design Resources:

Special Equipment: None

Test 100%

Class Outline

1.     Introduction to Displacement Ventilation Systems

1.1.  Comparison to conventional overhead mixing systems

1.1.1.     Features of conventional overhead mixing systems
1.1.2.     Features of DV systems

1.2.  Airflow patterns, heat sources, thermal plumes and stratification
1.3.  Indoor air quality and ventilation performance
1.4.  Cooling only operation
1.5.  Potential benefits of DV
1.6.  Limitations of DV
1.7.  Applications

2.     Displacement Ventilation Diffusers

2.1.  Diffuser design
2.2.  Diffuser placement
2.3.  Adjacent zone
2.4.  Smoke visualization
2.5.  What to look for in DV diffusers
2.6.  Heating options for DV systems
2.7.  DV Group Activity

3.     Introduction to Underfloor Air Distribution Systems

3.1.  Comparison to conventional overhead mixing systems
3.2.  Key features of UFAD systems
3.3.  System configuration
3.4.  Potential UFAD benefits
3.5.  Limitations and technology needs
3.6.  Market penetration and drivers
3.7.  ASHRAE UFAD Design Guide

4.     Diffusers and System Design

4.1.  UFAD diffuser types
4.2.  Common UFAD VAV system designs in the U.S.

4.2.1.     System #1 with swirl diffusers
4.2.2.     System #2 with VAV diffusers

4.3.  Placement of diffusers
4.4.  Personal control of diffusers
4.5.  Perimeter zone solutions: heating and cooling
4.6.  Diffuser code compliance

5.     Room Air Stratification

5.1.  Key issue #1 – stratification
5.2.  Comparison to overhead and DV systems
5.3.  Comparison of diffuser performance
5.4.  Impact of airflow rate and throw height
5.5.  Stratification in perimeter zones
5.6.  Temperature distribution during heating performance
5.7.  Summary of stratification guidelines

6.     Underfloor Air Supply Plenums

6.1.  Key issue #2 – underfloor plenums
6.2.  Plenum design variations
6.3.  Plenum air leakage
6.4.  UFAD Group Activity 1 and 2

7.     Energy waste: How and where is energy wasted in a typical building

8.     Energy Recovery Theory

9.     Examples of energy recovery equipment

9.1.  Air-to-air

9.1.1.     Heat recovery ventilators (sensible)   Fixed plate   Runaround coil loop

9.1.2.     Energy recovery ventilators (sensible + latent) and Energy Wheels

9.2.  Air-to-water

9.2.1.     Water source heat pump system
9.2.2.     Heat pump water heaters (e.g., dump waste cooling to server room)

9.3.  Water-to-water

10.  Operations and maintenance

10.1.    Controls strategies and sequences
10.2.    Maintenance considerations
10.3.    Class exercise #1 and #2

11.  Selecting energy recovery systems

11.1.    Design considerations

11.1.1.  Seasonal availability of waste heat / cooling
11.1.2.  Proximity of equipment and systems

11.2.    Financial considerations

11.2.1.  Cost-effectiveness
11.2.2.  Utility incentives and tax credits

12.  Energy performance considerations

12.1.    How energy recovery equipment can help meet energy management goals

12.1.1.  Energy benefits related to energy recovery equipment

12.2.  Industry awards and certifications that may apply (e.g., LEED)
12.3.  Conclusion