BOC 1010

Credits: .7
Lecture: 6 hrs
Group Exercises: 1 hr
Total: 7 hrs

Prerequisites: None

Class Description: Participants will learn the theory, design, and operational practices for displacement ventilation strategies, underfloor air distribution systems, and naturally ventilated and mixed mode strategies in buildings to improve thermal comfort, reduce system energy use, and maintain an effective and high-performing ventilation system. Participants will learn the theory, design, and operational practices for new HVAC equipment technologies being installed in high performance buildings, so they can calculate the total cost of ownership, help building owners comply with energy codes, and meet building energy management goals.


Course Objectives and Competencies:
At the completion of Energy Efficient Ventilation Strategies and High Performance Heating and Cooling Equipment a participant will be able to:

  1. Contrast the key operating characteristics that distinguish between underfloor air distribution (UFAD), displacement ventilation (DV), natural ventilation, and mixed-mode systems.
  2. Recognize the most common system components, design configurations, applications, and principles of operation found in the U.S.
  3. Discuss the relative benefits and challenges of each system.
  4. Explain how room air stratification affects performance, what the recommended levels are, and how adjustments can be made.
  5. Describe the fundamentals of thermal decay.
  6. Recall troubleshooting techniques and strategies for addressing energy and indoor environmental quality issues.
  7. Explain the thermal comfort standards and how they compare to conventional standards.
  8. Identify ways to improve thermal comfort, reduce system energy use, and maintain an effective and high-performing HVAC system.
  9. Recall key research results that help us understand how occupants interact with and respond to the indoor environments.
  10. Identify the range of control strategies that people have used to optimize each system type.
  11. Recall case studies in various climates that can be used as precedents for the design and operation of similar buildings.
  12. Describe HVAC equipment being deployed in high-performance buildings (e.g., condensing boilers, ground-source heat pumps, chilled beams).
  13. Explain advanced control sequences and strategies associated with high-performance HVAC equipment.
  14. Apply specific operations and maintenance techniques to maintain good performance.
  15. Determine the difference between initial cost and total cost of ownership for a piece of equipment.
  16. Add the requirement for total cost of ownership analysis to proposals.
  17. Develop specifications for product and equipment vendors that offer energy-efficient products.
  18. Describe how high-performance equipment can help building owners comply with local and state energy-efficiency requirements.
  19. Describe typical utility incentives and tax credits that apply to high-performance heating and cooling equipment.
  20. Describe how high-performance equipment can help building owners meet building energy management goals and policies.
  21. Describe industry awards and certifications, such as LEED, that apply to high-performance equipment.

BOC 1010 –Energy Efficient Ventilation Strategies and High Performance Heating and Cooling Equipment Handbook, NEEC

Recommended Readings:
Architectural Energy Corporation. 2006. “Displacement Ventilation Design Guide: K-12 Schools.” Contract No. 500-03-003, California Energy Commission (CEC),

Energy Design Resources. 2003. “Design Brief: Underfloor Air Distribution and Access Floors.” Prepared for EDR by Architectural Energy Corporation.

Mixed-Mode Case Studies, CBE website, CBE mixed mode website,

Special Equipment: None

Test 100%

Class Outline


1.     Introduction to Displacement Ventilation Systems

1.1.  Comparison to conventional overhead mixing systems

1.1.1.     Features of conventional overhead mixing systems
1.1.2.     Features of DV systems

1.2.  Airflow patterns, heat sources, thermal plumes and stratification
1.3.  Indoor air quality and ventilation performance
1.4.  Cooling only operation
1.5.  Potential benefits of DV
1.6.  Limitations of DV
1.7.  Applications

2.     Displacement Ventilation Diffusers

2.1.  Diffuser design
2.2.  Diffuser placement
2.3.  Adjacent zone
2.4.  Smoke visualization
2.5.  What to look for in DV diffusers
2.6.  Heating options for DV systems
2.7.  DV Group Activity

3.     Introduction to Underfloor Air Distribution Systems

3.1.  Comparison to conventional overhead mixing systems
3.2.  Key features of UFAD systems
3.3.  System configuration
3.4.  Potential UFAD benefits
3.5.  Limitations and technology needs
3.6.  Market penetration and drivers
3.7.  ASHRAE UFAD Design Guide

4.     Diffusers and System Design

4.1.  UFAD diffuser types
4.2.  Common UFAD VAV system designs in the U.S.

4.2.1.     System #1 with swirl diffusers
4.2.2.     System #2 with VAV diffusers

4.3.  Placement of diffusers
4.4.  Personal control of diffusers
4.5.  Perimeter zone solutions: heating and cooling
4.6.  Diffuser code compliance

5.     Room Air Stratification

5.1.  Key issue #1 – stratification
5.2.  Comparison to overhead and DV systems
5.3.  Comparison of diffuser performance
5.4.  Impact of airflow rate and throw height
5.5.  Stratification in perimeter zones
5.6.  Temperature distribution during heating performance
5.7.  Summary of stratification guidelines

6.     Underfloor Air Supply Plenums

6.1.  Key issue #2 – underfloor plenums
6.2.  Plenum design variations
6.3.  Plenum air leakage
6.4.  UFAD Group Activity 1 and 2

7.     Introduction to Operable Windows in Commercial Buildings

7.1.     Functions of “natural ventilation”
(ventilation, cooling people, cooling spaces, cooling structure)
7.2.  (Potential) benefits of natural ventilation
7.3.  (Potential) limitations of natural ventilation

8.     Typologies of Ventilation & Cooling Strategies

8.1.  Natural ventilation
8.2.  Mechanical ventilation
8.3.  Mechanical cooling
8.4.  Hybrid ventilation
8.5.  Mixed-Mode

9.     What is “Mixed-Mode Cooling”

9.1.  Concurrent systems
9.2.  Change-over systems
9.3.  Zoned systems
9.4.  Informational controls (signaling systems, red/green lights)

10.  Adaptive Comfort Standards

10.1.  Lab vs. field-based approaches to assessment comfort
10.2.  ASHRAE-funded global database of thermal comfort in AC and NV buildings
10.3.  ASHRAE Std 55 Adaptive Comfort Standard

11.  Occupants in NV/MM Buildings

11.1.  Air movement and comfort
11.2.  Occupant behavior & use of windows
11.3.  Occupant satisfaction with indoor environmental quality
11.4.  Heath & productivity

12.  Control Strategies in NV/MM Buildings

12.1.  Range of options for setpoint controls
12.2.  Signaling systems – case studies of control strategies used

13.  Case Studies of NV/MM Buildings & Summary and NV & MM Ventilation Group Activity

14.  Introduction to High Performance HVAC

14.1.  What defines “high performance”?
14.2.  How do high performance systems differ from “common” HVAC systems?

15.  Examples of High Performance HVAC Equipment

15.1.  Condensing boilers
15.2.  Ground source heat pumps
15.3.  Chilled beams

16.  Operations and Maintenance

16.1.  Controls strategies and sequences
16.2.  Maintenance considerations
16.3.  Class exercise #1

17.  Selecting High Performance HVAC Equipment

17.1.  Financial considerations

17.1.1.  Initial cost vs. total cost of ownership
17.1.2.  Utility incentives and tax credits

17.2.  Specifying equipment

17.2.1.  Performance-based specifications
17.2.2.  Total cost of ownership analysis

18.  Energy Performance Considerations

18.1.  How high performance HVAC equipment can help meet energy management goals and policies

18.1.1.  Energy benefits, energy savings compared to common HVAC equipment

18.2.  Industry awards and certifications that may apply (e.g., LEED)
18.3.  Complying with local and state energy efficiency requirements

19.  HP Heating & Cooling Systems Activity: Case Study I

20.  Conclusion